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What is Conjunctiva

What is Conjunctiva2019-06-03T22:17:41+00:00

What is Conjunctiva?

The word “conjunctiva” refers to the tissues that align inside the eyelids of a person that will cover the white colored thing inside of the person’s eye. That part is called the sclera. This conjunctiva consists of stratified columnar epithelium, stratified squamous epithelium that has the goblet cells and the so-called “unkeratinized.” The so-called “conjunctiva” is also considered as the high vascularized tissue that also consists of numerous micro-vessels that can easily access the studies of imaging.

The Structure of the Conjunctiva Tissue

There are three different parts of the conjunctiva tissue. This article will help you to understand more about the three parts of the conjunctiva. Keep and enjoy reading!

Fornix Conjunctiva

Fornix conjunctiva is the one that will create the junction between the palpebral conjunctivas and bulbar. This part of the conjunctiva is flexible and loose, which allow the eye of the person to move freely from the eyeball and the lids.

Ocular Conjunctiva or Bulbar

This part of the conjunctiva can cover the person’s eyeball and is located on the sclera anterior. This ocular conjunctiva or the bulbar is firmly attached to the basic sclera that is located to the Tenon’s capsule and will allow the eye of the person to move as his eyeball also moves. 33 microns is the conjunctival membrane or the normal bulbar thickness.

Tarsal Conjunctiva or the Palpebral

This part of the conjunctiva, the tarsal conjunctiva or the palpebral is the lines that you can see at the eyelids of the person’s eye.

Blood Supply of the Conjunctiva Tissue

The blood that is flowing to the ocular conjunctiva or the bulbar is originated from the so-called “ophthalmic artery” of the person’s eye. The blood that is flowing from the tarsal conjunctiva or the palpebral or the eyelid of the person’s eye is originated from the so-called “external carotid artery” of the person. However, the blood circulation of both the palpebral conjunctiva and the bulbar conjunctiva are associated with each other. Thus the palpebral conjunctival vessels and the bulbar conjunctival vessels are being provided by the external carotid artery and the ophthalmic artery that will always depend on every extent of the blood circulation.

Nerve Supply of the Conjunctiva

There are four different parts that the sensory innervation of the conjunctiva tissue consists. The following are the four parts of the sensory innervation. Let us start from;


This is the first part of sensory innervation that has the so-called “long ciliary nerves.”


This is the second part of the sensory innervation that consists of the so-called “lacrimal nerve” that is originated from the so-called “zygomaticofacial nerve.”


Inferior is the third part of the sensory innervation that has the nerve which called as the Infraorbital nerve.


This is the fourth and last part of the sensory innervation that has the three types of nerves, which are the Infratrochlear nerve, the Supratrochlear nerve, and the Supra-orbital nerve.

Microanatomy about the Conjunctiva Tissue

The conjunctiva tissue also contains unkeratinized, both the stratified columnar and the stratified squamous epithelium that has the firmly attached goblet cells. The layer of the epithelial also consists of lymphatic channels, fibrous tissue, and the lacrimal glands. The accessory lacrimal glands that also possessed by the conjunctiva tissue also generate the aqueous that is part of the person’s tears. The conjunctival epithelium also contains the additional cells such as the B and T cell lymphocytes and the melanocytes.

The Function of the Conjunctiva Tissue

The conjunctiva tissue will also enable the eye to lubricate by itself by creating tears and mucus. But the volume of the person’s tears is much smaller and thinner when compared to the lacrimal gland. The conjunctiva tissue will also help the immune surveillance to avoid the entry of the microbes inside the person’s eyes.

Clinical Significance of the Conjunctiva Tissue

The defects that a person can feel about his or her cornea and conjunctiva tissue are the primary reasons for the different eye complaints of the person. It is only because the eye’s surface is usually exposed to different external elements. Thus the eye of the person is prone to dryness, allergic reactions, chemical irritations, infections, and eye trauma. The following are the clinical significance of Conjunctiva tissue that you should know.

  • The Leptospirosis, which is an infection that usually follows by the Leptospira, is the reason of the conjunctival suffusion that can be observed through the redness of the eyes and chemosis.
  • Tumors can also affect the conjunctiva tissue of a person that is also considered as malignant, pre-malignant or benign.
  • When a person is reaching his or her older age, their conjunctiva tissue will also loosen and stretch from the base of the sclera, which leads to the production of the folds in the conjunctival tissues, which is known as the condition of conjunctivochalasis.
  • The occlusion of the carotid artery of the person is also connected to the slower blood circulation to the conjunctiva tissues and might also lead to a capillary loss.
  • Hypertension or high blood pressure is also connected to the increase of the arteriole, capillary loss, and conjunctival bulbar blood vessels tortuosity.
  • The condition called the “sickle-cell anemia” is also connected to the sludging of blood vessels, capillary micro-hemorrhages, and can alter the diameter of the blood vessels and the blood circulation.
  • The condition called the “type II diabetes” is also connected to the conjunctival hypoxia, capillary loss and the increase to the average diameter of the blood vessels.
  • The DR or diabetic retinopathy can also affect the conjunctival microvascular hemodynamics. Thus, it is recommended for the person with this kind of condition to be monitored and diagnosed and diminishes the DR stages.


Conjunctiva tissue is one of the essential parts of the person’s eyes. This conjunctiva is composed of different tissues that will cover the eyelid of the person. It is also the one that protects the person’s eyes against the external elements that are considered as harmful.

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