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LASIK, frequently referred to simply as ‘Laser Eye Surgery’ is one of many different types of refractive surgeries for making corrections to the following vision conditions: hyperopia, astigmatism, and myopia. This type of surgery will be performed by a specialist in the field of ophthalmology and has had training in the use of a laser or microkeratome (for the reshaping of the cornea in the eyes) in order to improve one’s vision. LASIK gives a long-term alternative for those that are no longer interested in wearing contact lenses or eyeglasses. It is similar to some of the other procedures for surgical correction, such as LASEK and photo-refractive keratectomy (PRK). There are more advanced surgical procedures in treating refractive errors for specific vision problems listed above. For those who have a moderate to a high level of myopia, or has a thinner cornea than they should, the alternative is phakic intraocular lens.

An estimated 8 million Americans had already been treated with LASIK by the year of 2018, and another 40 million procedures were performed between the years of 1991 and 2016. According to America’s eye care data source for Market Scope, the procedure is an option for many but has started to decline in the United States, as it has gone down more than 50% (from 1.5 million surgeries during the year of 2007, down to 604,000 surgeries during the year of 2015).

Back in the year of 2006, the National Institute on Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) of the National Health Services in Britain took into consideration all of the evidence which showed the effectiveness of laser surgery, as they stated that. “recent evidence has suggested that the photo-refractive (laser) surgery to make corrections to refractive errors to be efficacious and safe to use on patients who are appropriately selected. All patients should be informed and be well aware of the benefits they will receive from the procedure. The procedures previously performed achieve benefits of vision improvement, and the patient’s no longer have the need for eyeglasses, nor for contacts. However, it has not yet been determined on the safety or the effectiveness of the refractive procedures on patient’s with specific diseases.

With advanced technology there has been a decrease in post visual impairment. The results have shown that there is a connection to the part of the cornea that is untouched and of the part that has been re-shaped. Visual will be optimal for daytime post LASIK as it is normal for the size of the pupil to be smaller than what the LASIK flap is. However, the pupils come more near dilating at night letting the light seep through the flap edge of the LASIK, giving the aberrations a rise. Should the laser fail to correct the error, it will make it the possible for the LASIK or the PRK to induce a spherical aberration while moving from the center (the treatment zone) outwards, this comes more near happening when the corrections made were major issues.

The American National Standards Institute have standardized the techniques used in corneal reshaping of corrective surgeries such as LASIK, and all the planning and analysis involved with it as well. It is considered to be based on the method of Alpins method for astigmatic analysis. The FDA made a statement in regards to LASIK’s saying that, “Prior to the procedure of a refractive corrective surgery, it would be a good idea for the patient to ask questions and weigh the pros and cons (the risks and the benefits) basing this on one’s own personal system of values, and try to keep from being influenced by others. This procedure will involve making a thin flap right on the eye(s), and folding, in order to be able to remodel the under lying tissue using a laser and then reposition the flap to make the procedure complete.

Instructions will be given to the patients who are currently wearing soft contact lenses will be told not to wear them starting at 5 to 21 days prior to the surgery. There is an industry which suggests that patients who wear hard contact lenses to stop wearing them for at least 6 weeks prior, and add another 6 weeks to that for each three years they have worn them. Because it has to be transparent in order to function correctly, the cornea is considered to be avascular. The tear film helps it to absorb the oxygen that is needed. This is saying that the low oxygen permeable contacts are keeping the cornea(s) from absorbing the oxygen it needs and it occasionally results in corneal neovascularization (causing blood vessels to grow inside the cornea). This will help the inflammation time to be lengthened, as well as the healing time during the time of the surgery. Patients are given instructions on over wearing contacts, for even though some of them are more up to date and have a modem RGP, including hydrogel lenses which has the soft silicone are being made from materials that have more oxygen permeability and will help to decrease the risk for corneal neovascularization, and those that are taken LASIK into consideration are being pre-warned against wearing their contacts to often.

The FDA approved LASIK surgery in the United States for those who have reached the age of 18 years of age and 22 years of age and over, in order to keep their vision stabilized. It is important for the eye prescription of the patient to be kept continuously stable for no less than 12 months prior to having the surgery. It is possible that the patient will have an examination using the pupillary dilation, along with them some education on it before the procedure is performed. The patient will also have their corneas examined using a pachymeter prior to having the surgery in order to determine its thickness, and this will be performed using a corneal topography machine or a topographer.